The Australian Leisure Product Tourism Essay
Essay的組成部分：由introduction, main body, conclusion, reference四部分組成全文統一用times new roman字體，小四，1.5倍行距。
文章中請不要用I, we, our, you, your之類的主觀性強的第一、二人稱，可以用被動語態或其他句型代替
第二部分介紹這篇文章的結構，按照firstly, secondly, finally的固定形式介紹文章結構，你只需列入body里面介紹的每一點。
Alan, M. (2006). Shifting Tides-Culture in Contemporary China. Beijing University Press.
Ding Z. (2006). Research on the Development and Problems of Modern Insurance in China. Journal of Kaifeng University, 20(1), pp 19-23.
Jin H. and Xiu D. (2006). Shifting Tides-Culture in Contemporary China. Beijing University Press.
Mulford D. C. (2005). Paper Presented at The Conference on Building A Vibrant Insurance Market in India. New Delhi: Taj Mansingh Press.
澳大利亞的第一個國家公園是在1879年新南威爾士州建立的皇家國家公園。此后,澳大利亞有重大進展在保護和創建國家公園。1992年,生物多樣性公約簽訂了。這意味著澳大利亞開發國家戰略保護澳大利亞BiodiversityA和保護區制度(Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012).
在澳大利亞多數國家公園中的州和領地政府管理,但最近他們可以由環保組織管理。1998年，這包括土著保護區本土自然景觀，帶來了相關的文化價值觀(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006).1999年保護區在私有土地上被集中來保護稀有和瀕危生態系統存在于土地的非賣品。這涉及到與澳大利亞政府合作(Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012).
This discussion is about national parks within Australia. It includes the history of national parks, who uses them, who makes all the decisions and what does national parks contribute to the tourism industry.
In Australia national parks are protected areas of land and sea that protect significant biodiversity and natural and cultural resources. National parks are recognized under commonwealth, state and territory laws.
Australia's first national park was the Royal National Park in New South Wales in 1879. Since then Australia has had significant advances in protecting and creating national parks. In 1992 the convention on biological diversity was developed. This now meant that Australia had to develop a National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biodiversity? and a system of protected areas (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012).
As of 1993, under the United Nations Biodiversity Convention all governments within Australia must join the development of the comprehensive, adequate and representative national reserve system (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006). In 1996 the national reserve system program was made. This involved helping the states, territories, Indigenous communities, local councils and conservation organisations to buy and establish land for the reserve system.
State and territory governments manage most national parks in Australia, but more recently they can be managed by conservation groups. This includes indigenous protected areas that are Indigenous-owned to protect the natural and associated cultural values this was brought in in 1998 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006). In 1999 protected areas on private land was focused to help protect rare and threatened ecosystems that existed on lands that were not for sale. This involved a partnership with the Australian government (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012).
In 2008 a new initiative called caring for country was developed. This involved committing more money towards areas with low level protection. And in 2009 a new strategy for the national reserve system was released. "This updated Strategy identifies priority actions for the ongoing development of a national system of protected areas and reserves for the next 20 years." (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012)
National parks within Australia are very important. Protecting, conserving and making new National Parks is important for the environment and for Australians. National parks mean all different things to everyone and should be open for everyone now and into the future.
National parks within Australia are very popular. They can be found all around Australia in every state and territory. National parks are important to many different types of people and for many different reasons. According to the Australian bureau of statistics when collecting data on environmental topics such as visits to World Heritage areas, and national and state parks, it was found that "people aged 25-34 years or 35-44 years were the most likely to have visited these areas and parks in the 12 months prior to March 2004." (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006).
In that same period of time it showed that for age groups, 25-34 years and 35-44 years, "over 60% of people visited one of these areas compared with 52% for the adult population as a whole. With a visit rate of 31%, people aged 65 years or over were the least likely to have visited these areas."
National parks offer many recreational opportunities which include: "nature appreciation, walking, camping, four wheel driving, horse riding, mountain biking, scenic driving" (Sustainable Tourism Online, 2010). These are the reasons people come to national parks and many more reasons.
Not only is it Australians visiting our national parks either but international visitors. "In 2009, there were 3.3 million international nature visitors to Australia - 64 per cent of all international visitors to Australia." (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2011)
The legislation responsible for establishing and managing protected areas is the Environment protection and biodiversity conservation act 1999. The corporation that works under this act is the director of national parks. Parks Australia also helps this corporation in performing its functions, parks Australia is a part of the department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities.
The director of national parks, under the Environment protection and biodiversity conservation act 1999is responsible for:
"the administration, management and control of Commonwealth reserves and conservation zones;
the protection, conservation and management of biodiversity and heritage in Commonwealth reserves and conservation zones;
the protection, conservation and management of biodiversity and heritage in areas outside Commonwealth reserves and conservation zones;
consulting and cooperating with other countries with regard to matters relating to the establishment and management of national parks and nature reserves in those countries;
the provision of training in the knowledge and skills relevant to the establishment and management of national parks and nature reserves;
research and investigation relevant to the establishment and management of Commonwealth reserves;
making recommendations to the Australian Government Minister for the Environment; and,
administration of the Australian National Parks Fund."
(Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012)
Branching off from the director of national parks is three other divisions that report back to the director of national parks. These three other branches are parks protected areas program, parks operations and tourism and parks and biodiversity science (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012).
Parks and protected areas are responsible "for leadership and delivery of the National Reserve Systems and Indigenous Protected Areas Programs, management of the Commonwealth's access and benefit-sharing legislation in relation to genetic resources, and protected area policy matters." (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012).
Parks operations and tourism is responsible for managing protected area support, compliance systems, protected area planning and tourism policy and practice. Parks and biodiversity science is responsible for the management and support of national parks and botanic gardens, the management of botanical collections, research and collects and disseminates biological information (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2012).
National parks have very important recreational and tourism values. Australia's natural environments, biodiversity and landscapes support much of Australia's $40 billion tourism industry, because most of it is used as protected areas. "Australia's national parks in 2001 attracted around? 80 million visitors each year? and it could reasonably be expected to have exceeded 100 million visitors per annum currently." (Sustainable Tourism Online, 2010). Nature based tourism also largely contributes to the economic side with $23 billion to the Australian economy each year (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2011).
The rate of visitors to national parks is expected to increase as the world's population also increases. "Sixty eight percent of all international visitors to Australia can be classified as nature-based tourists." (Sustainable Tourism Online, 2010). This will also increase as people become more aware of Australia's environment and natural areas as human impacts are putting a bigger demand on what people want to see. With more visitors there will have to be an increase in visitor monitoring and addressing the concerns of visitor impacts (Sustainable Tourism Online, 2010).
"Outdoor recreation in national parks is also a major contributor to the economy through the purchasing of goods and equipment and businesses providing outdoor recreation services, life skills programs and outdoor education courses to schools, tourists and other groups." (Sustainable Tourism Online, 2010) National parks provides many opportunities and contributes much to the overall tourism industry. The tourism industry and national parks have a beneficial relationship together. Tourism support national parks in many ways such as establishing and protecting parks, creates opportunities for regional economics, helps educate people about parks and adds to the parks values (Sustainable Tourism Online, 2010).
An example of a popular national park is Kakadu and Uluru-Kata Tjuta national parks. It is estimated that both contribute $320 million a year, which helps support the regional economics and provides about 740 jobs in the area (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2011).
Another example is of indigenous tourism. This type of tourism helps protect existing and potential tourism areas. "Indigenous tourism is recognised in the National long-term tourism strategy as important to the Australian tourism industry's competitiveness and to economic development for Indigenous Australians." (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities, 2011).
From the Australian bureau of statistics it shows many trends coming from national parks within Australia. The results show that visits to national parks have declined between 1992 and 2004 between the age groups of 25-34 years or 35-44. For the age group 18-24 years old the visit rate has also declined from 59% in 2001 to 51% in 2004. Also the overall adult visit rate decreased from 54% in 2001 to 52% in 2004 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012).
These results show that there is an overall decline in most age groups when it comes to visiting national parks. The results show that the reason why people hadn't visited a national park was because of time, 36% of the people said it was because there was a lack of time, which was the main reason. This reason was the most common for all the age groups except for the people aged 65 and over, which was because of age or health conditions. The age groups 25-34 years and 35-44 had the highest results for lack of time being the main reason, which where both 49% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012).
Other trends in national parks include the increase in area of national parks. "The area protected for National parks increased by nearly 11 million hectares between 2002 and 2008 to encompass 5% of the total land area of Australia by 2008." (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). As of 2008 Australia's protected areas extend across 98.5 million hectares which is 13% of Australia's total area. Also within these 98.5 million hectares is 20.6 million hectares of indigenous protected area, which is managed by indigenous people. This is aimed to increase up to 125 million hectares over all by 2013 and also increase indigenous protected areas by 8 and 16 million hectares.
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From this discussion about national parks within Australia it shows that there is a lot of time and work that goes in to protecting and conserving Australia's ecosystems and cultural resources. From Australia's first national park in 1879 to now having over 98.5 million hectares which is about 13% of Australia's area.
National parks are very popular within Australia and are visited for many reasons. Not only is it Australians visiting national parks but its international visitor's as well. With nature based tourism bringing in $23 billion a year to the Australian economy it is easy to see that this industry is very popular and must be protected for the future of Australia's tourism industry and also to protect the environment and cultural resources of Australia.
With so much demand on nature based tourism there will be more visitor impacts that will need to be monitored so the industry can be sustainable. From the trends showed more area is being set aside for protection which will help ease pressure off popular areas and national parks.
The issue with national parks is keeping it a sustainable industry. They are not only used for tourism based activities but the ecosystems and recourses that national parks protect is the reason why so much money, time and work goes in to preserving these natural environments. To protect natural environment and species should be the main concern and not be thought of after tourism and making money.